Quick Answer: Which Is The Oldest Method For Crop Improvement?

Who first coined the term heterosis?

Shull4-1).

The term heterosis was coined by Shull (1952)..

What is selection method in plant breeding?

The breeding methods that have proved successful with self-pollinated species are: (1) mass selection; (2) pure-line selection; (3) hybridization, with the segregating generations handled by the pedigree method, the bulk method, or by the backcross method; and (4) development of hybrid varieties.

Who is the father of pure line theory?

Wilhelm Ludvig JohannsenWilhelm JohannsenWilhelm Ludvig JohannsenKnown forproving the constancy of the genome Coining gene, genotype and phenotypeScientific careerFieldsGenetics Plant physiologyInstitutionsUniversity of Copenhagen6 more rows

What is pure line variety?

In Pureline selection a large number of plants are selected from a self pollinated crop and harvested individually; individual plant progenies from them are evaluated and the best progeny is released as a Pureline variety • All the individuals within a Pureline have identical genotype and any variation present within a …

What is back cross method?

A breeding method used to move one or a only a few desirable genes from an agronomically poor crop line to an elite line. This is done by crossing a donor parent to an elite line, and crossing offspring with the ‘desired gene(s)’ back to the elite parent.

What is pedigree selection?

Pedigree selection is a breeding method in which the breeder keeps records of the ancestry of the cultivar. The base population, of necessity, is established by crossing selected parents, followed by handling an actively segregating population.

Which is the oldest method of plant selection?

Selection also called the German method is the oldest plant breeding method.It is the preservation of plants of desirable characters and then growing them. Thus the correct answer is option B.

What is breeding in crop improvement?

In plant breeding, the aim is to produce new, improved cultivars (cultivated varieties) and so, it is necessary, as a first requirement of any breeding programme to release or produce genetic variation in the characters (or traits) which are relevant. … See also: Crop Plants: Evolution; Quantitative Genetics.

What is pure line selection?

Pure-line selection involves selecting and breeding progeny from superior organisms for a number of generations until a pure line of organisms with only the desired characteristics has been established.

What is mass selection?

In plant breeding: Mass selection. In mass selection, seeds are collected from (usually a few dozen to a few hundred) desirable appearing individuals in a population, and the next generation is sown from the stock of mixed seed. This procedure, sometimes referred to as phenotypic selection, is based…

Why is crop improvement needed?

It becomes necessary to increase the crop variety to produce disease-resistance offsprings of the crops. It also helps in providing better and superior varieties based on the quality and quantity of the yield.

What is the purpose of mass selection?

Specifically, mass selection is a breeding method where the decision to select a plant as a parent of the next generation is based on the performance of that plant. In this lesson, advantages and disadvantages of mass selection will be discussed, using examples from corn breeding.

What are the various methods of crop improvement?

Methods used for crop improvement:Plant Introduction.Selection.Hybridization.Mutation Breeding.Polyploidy.

What are the advantages of crop improvement?

Improving crop productivity. … Improving yield stability and disease/pest resistance. … Enhancing nutritional content of crops. … Minimizing adverse environmental impacts. … Rebuilding agricultural systems.

Which is the oldest method of crop improvement?

Selection is the oldest crop improvement method compared to hybridization, mutation and introduction.

Who gave pure line theory?

Abstract. In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding.

What are the aims of crop improvement?

The objective of crop yield improvement are:Higher yield: This can be done by the process of hybridization and cross-breeding.Better quality: There are different reasons for improving the quality of different crops, such as improvement of the baking quality in cereals like wheat.More items…

Who created plant breeding?

Gregor MendelIn the mid-1800s Gregor Mendel outlined the principles of heredity using pea plants and thus provided the necessary framework for scientific plant breeding. As the laws of genetic inheritance were further delineated in the early 20th century, a beginning was made toward applying them to the improvement of plants.